Date: 22 March 2016
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AUSCERT External Security Bulletin Redistribution
XZERES 442SR Wind Turbine Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability
22 March 2016
AusCERT Security Bulletin Summary
Product: XZERES 442SR Wind Turbine
Operating System: Network Appliance
Impact/Access: Cross-site Scripting -- Remote with User Interaction
CVE Names: CVE-2016-2287
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XZERES 442SR Wind Turbine Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability (Update B)
Original release date: December 08, 2015 | Last revised: March 21, 2016
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This updated advisory is a follow-up to the updated advisory titled
ICSA-15-342-01A XZERES 442SR Wind Turbine Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability
that was published December 10, 2015, on the NCCIC/ICS-CERT web site.
Independent researcher Karn Ganeshen has identified a cross-site scripting
vulnerability in XZERESs 442SR turbine generator operating system (OS). XZERES
has produced a patch to mitigate this vulnerability.
This vulnerability could be exploited remotely.
The following XZERES product is affected:
442SR Wind Turbine.
Successful exploitation of this vulnerability could allow the injection of
This exploit can cause a loss of power for all attached systems.
Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to
each organization. ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact
of this vulnerability based on their operational environment, architecture,
and product implementation.
XZERES is a US-based energy company that maintains offices in several
countries around the world, including the UK, Italy, Japan, Vietnam,
Philippines, and Myanmar.
The affected product, 442SR Wind Turbine, has a web-based interface system.
According to XZERES, the 442SR is deployed across the Energy sector. XZERES
estimates that this product is used worldwide.
CROSS-SITE SCRIPTING [a]
The 442SR OS does not provide adequate input validation. This could allow
malicious script to be injected into the program.
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CVE-2016-2287[b] has been assigned to this vulnerability.
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A CVSS v3 base score of 9.8 has been assigned; the CVSS vector string is
This vulnerability could be exploited remotely.
EXISTENCE OF EXPLOIT
No known public exploits specifically target this vulnerability.
Crafting a working exploit for this vulnerability would be easy. There is no
public exploit for this exact vulnerability; however, code exists online that
can be easily modified to initiate an XSS with this vulnerability.
XZERES has developed a manually deployable patch that mitigates this
Contact the XZERES Service Team at 1-877-404-9438 (option 4) for instructions
and support implementing the patch.
ICS-CERT recommends that users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of
exploitation of these vulnerabilities. Specifically, users should:
Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and
ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and
isolate them from the business network.
When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private
Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be
updated to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN is only
as secure as the connected devices.
ICS-CERT reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk
assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended
practices on the ICS-CERT web page at:
http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices. Several recommended
practices are available for reading and download, including Improving
Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.
Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly
available in the ICS-CERT Technical Information Paper,
ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation
Strategies, that is available for download from the ICS-CERT web site
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their
established internal procedures and report their findings to ICS-CERT for
tracking and correlation against other incidents.
a. CWE-79: Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation
(Cross-site Scripting), http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/79.html, web
site last accessed December 08, 2015.
b. NVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2015-2287, NIST
uses this advisory to create the CVE web site report. This web site will be
active sometime after publication of this advisory.
c. CVSS Calculator,
web site last accessed December 08, 2015.
For any questions related to this report, please contact ICS-CERT at:
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org (link sends e-mail)
Toll Free: 1-877-776-7585
International Callers: (208) 526-0900
For industrial control systems security information and incident reporting:
ICS-CERT continuously strives to improve its products and services. You can
help by choosing one of the links below to provide feedback about this
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