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             AUSCERT External Security Bulletin Redistribution

                               ESB-2019.1530
          Advisory (ICSA-19-122-03) Sierra Wireless AirLink ALEOS
                                3 May 2019

===========================================================================

        AusCERT Security Bulletin Summary
        ---------------------------------

Product:           Sierra Wireless AirLink ALEOS
Publisher:         ational Cybersecurity and Communications Integration Center
Operating System:  Network Appliance
Impact/Access:     Execute Arbitrary Code/Commands -- Existing Account            
                   Cross-site Request Forgery      -- Remote with User Interaction
                   Cross-site Scripting            -- Remote with User Interaction
                   Access Confidential Data        -- Remote/Unauthenticated      
                   Reduced Security                -- Remote/Unauthenticated      
Resolution:        Patch/Upgrade
CVE Names:         CVE-2018-4069 CVE-2018-4067 CVE-2018-4066
                   CVE-2018-4065 CVE-2018-4063 CVE-2018-4062
                   CVE-2018-4061  

Original Bulletin: 
   https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/advisories/ICSA-19-122-03

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Advisory (ICSA-19-122-03)

Sierra Wireless AirLink ALEOS

Original release date: May 02, 2019

Legal Notice

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product is governed by the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP) marking in the header.
For more information about TLP, see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp/ .

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  o CVSS v3 9.1
  o ATTENTION: Exploitable remotely/low skill level to exploit/public exploits
    are available
  o Vendor: Sierra Wireless
  o Equipment: AirLink ALEOS
  o Vulnerabilities: OS Command Injection, Use of Hard-coded Credentials,
    Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type, Cross-site Scripting,
    Cross-site Request Forgery, Information Exposure, Missing Encryption of
    Sensitive Data

2. RISK EVALUATION

Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow attackers to
remotely execute code, discover user credentials, upload files, or discover
file paths.

3. TECHNICAL DETAILS

3.1 AFFECTED PRODUCTS

Sierra Wireless reports the vulnerabilities affect the following AirLink ALEOS
versions and products:

  o LS300, GX400, GX440, and ES440: Version 4.4.8 and prior
  o GX450 and ES450: All versions prior to 4.9.4
  o MP70, MP70E, RV50, RV50X, LX40, and LX60: All versions prior to 4.12

3.2 VULNERABILITY OVERVIEW

3.2.1 IMPROPER NEUTRALIZATION OF SPECIAL ELEMENTS USED IN AN OS COMMAND ('OS
COMMAND INJECTION') CWE-78

A specially crafted authenticated HTTP request can inject arbitrary commands,
resulting in remote code execution.

CVE-2018-4061 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
9.1 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:L/PR:H/UI:N/S:C/
C:H/I:H/A:H ).

3.2.2 USE OF HARD-CODED CREDENTIALS CWE-798

Activating SNMPD outside of the WebUI can cause the activation of the
hard-coded credentials, resulting in the exposure of a privileged user. An
attacker can activate SNMPD without any configuration changes to trigger this
vulnerability.

CVE-2018-4062 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
6.2 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:H/PR:H/UI:N/S:U/
C:H/I:L/A:H ).

3.2.3 UNRESTRICTED UPLOAD OF FILE WITH DANGEROUS TYPE CWE-434

A specially crafted authenticated HTTP request can upload a file, resulting in
an executable, routable code upload to the web server.

CVE-2018-4063 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
9.1 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:L/PR:H/UI:N/S:C/
C:H/I:H/A:H ).

3.2.4 IMPROPER NEUTRALIZATION OF INPUT DURING WEB PAGE GENERATION ('CROSS-SITE
SCRIPTING') CWE-79

A specially crafted HTTP ping request can cause reflected JavaScript to be
executed and run on the user's browser. An attacker can exploit this by
convincing a user to click a link or embedded URL that redirects to the
reflected cross-site scripting vulnerability.

CVE-2018-4065 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
6.1 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:R/S:C/
C:L/I:L/A:N ).

3.2.5 CROSS-SITE REQUEST FORGERY (CSRF) CWE-352

A specially crafted HTTP request can cause an authenticated user to perform
privileged requests unknowingly, resulting in unauthenticated requests through
an authenticated user. Triggering this vulnerability may allow an attacker
access to authenticated pages via an authenticated user.

CVE-2018-4066 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
6.8 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:H/PR:N/UI:R/S:U/
C:N/I:H/A:H ).

3.2.6 INFORMATION EXPOSURE CWE-200

A specially crafted authenticated HTTP request can cause an information leak,
resulting in the disclosure of internal file paths.

CVE-2018-4067 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
4.1 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:L/PR:H/UI:N/S:C/
C:L/I:N/A:N ).

3.2.7 MISSING ENCRYPTION OF SENSITIVE DATA CWE-311

The ACEManager authentication functionality is delivered in plaintext XML to
the web server. An attacker can listen to network traffic upstream from the
device, which may allow access to credentials.

CVE-2018-4069 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
5.9 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is ( AV:N/AC:H/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/
C:H/I:N/A:N ).

3.3 BACKGROUND

  o CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS: Commercial Facilities, Communications,
    Emergency Services, Energy, Government Facilities, Transportation Systems,
    Water and Wastewater Systems
  o COUNTRIES/AREAS DEPLOYED: Worldwide
  o COMPANY HEADQUARTERS LOCATION: Canada

3.4 RESEARCHER

Carl Hurd and Jared Rittle of Cisco Talos reported these vulnerabilities to
Sierra Wireless.

4. MITIGATIONS

Sierra Wireless recommends users upgrade to the latest version of ALEOS for the
products and versions below (Some updates are not yet available). For upgrade
assistance contact an authorized AirLink reseller, Sierra Wireless sales,
technical representative, or Sierra Wireless technical support.

  o LS300, GX400, GX440, ES440: ALEOS 4.4.9 (Available by the end of 2019)
  o GX450, ES450ALEOS 4.9.4.p09 (Currently available)
  o MP70, MP70E, RV50, RV50X, LX40, LX60: ALEOS 4.12 (Available by the end of
    June 2019)

Sierra Wireless recommends users follow the actions outlined below:

  o Ensure a strong password is set for the user account. For guidance on
    password strength, Sierra Wireless recommends the "memorized secret
    authenticator" guidelines in NIST SP800-63B.
  o If ALEOS Application Framework (AAF) is enabled, ensure a strong password
    is set for the AAF User account.
  o If Telnet or SSH is enabled, ensure a strong password is set for the
    console account.
  o When connecting directly to ACEmanager:
       Use only HTTPS.
       Utilize an up-to-date, modern web browser with built-in CSS and CSRF
        protection, such as Chrome, Firefox, or Edge.

For more information, see the Sierra Wireless security advisory using the
following link:

https://source.sierrawireless.com/resources/airlink/software_reference_docs/
technical-bulletin/sierra-wireless-technical-bulletin---swi-psa-2019-003/

The following SNORT rules will detect exploitation attempts. Note that
additional rules may be released at a future date and current rules are subject
to change pending additional vulnerability information. For the most current
rule information, please refer to a Firepower Management Center or Snort.org.

Snort Rules: 48600, 48635, 48614 - 48621, 48747

NCCIC recommends users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of
exploitation of this vulnerability. Specifically, users should:

  o Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems,
    and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet .
  o Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and
    isolate them from the business network.
  o When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private
    Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should
    be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN
    is only as secure as the connected devices.

NCCIC reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk
assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.

NCCIC also provides a section for control systems security recommended
practices on the ICS-CERT web page. Several recommended practices are available
for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems
Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies .

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available
on the ICS-CERT website in the Technical Information Paper,
ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation
Strategies .

Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their
established internal procedures and report their findings to NCCIC for tracking
and correlation against other incidents.

NCCIC also recommends that users take the following measures to protect
themselves from social engineering attacks:

  o Do not click web links or open unsolicited attachments in email messages.
  o Refer to Recognizing and Avoiding Email Scams for more information on
    avoiding email scams.
  o Refer to Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing Attacks for more
    information on social engineering attacks.

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