ESB-2018.2011 - [Appliance] Universal Robots Robot Controllers: Multiple vulnerabilities 2018-07-11

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             AUSCERT External Security Bulletin Redistribution

                               ESB-2018.2011
  Universal Robots announce critical vulnerabilities in their controllers
                               11 July 2018

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        AusCERT Security Bulletin Summary
        ---------------------------------

Product:           Universal Robots Robot Controllers
Publisher:         Universal Robots
Operating System:  Network Appliance
Impact/Access:     Root Compromise                 -- Remote/Unauthenticated
                   Execute Arbitrary Code/Commands -- Remote/Unauthenticated
Resolution:        Mitigation
CVE Names:         CVE-2018-10635 CVE-2018-10633 

Original Bulletin: 
   https://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/advisories/ICSA-18-191-01

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Advisory (ICSA-18-191-01)

Universal Robots Robot Controllers

Original release date: July 10, 2018

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  * CVSS v3 9.8
  * ATTENTION: Exploitable remotely/low skill level to exploit
  * Vendor: Universal Robots
  * Equipment: Robot Controllers
  * Vulnerabilities: Use of Hard-coded Credentials, Missing Authentication for
    Critical Function

2. RISK EVALUATION

Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could allow a remote attacker
to run arbitrary code on the device.

3. TECHNICAL DETAILS

3.1 AFFECTED PRODUCTS

The following versions of robot controllers are affected:

  * CB 3.1, SW Version 3.4.5-100

3.2 VULNERABILITY OVERVIEW

3.2.1    USE OF HARD-CODED CREDENTIALS CWE-798

The application utilizes hard-coded credentials that may allow an attacker to
reset passwords for the controller.

CVE-2018-10633 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
7.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L
/I:L/A:L).

3.2.2    MISSING AUTHENTICATION FOR CRITICAL FUNCTION CWE-306

Ports 30001/TCP to 30003/TCP listen for arbitrary URScript code and execute the
code. This enables a remote attacker who has access to the ports to remotely
execute code that may allow root access to be obtained.

CVE-2018-10635 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of
9.8 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:H
/I:H/A:H).

3.3 BACKGROUND

  * CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS: Critical Manufacturing, Transportation
    Systems
  * COUNTRIES/AREAS DEPLOYED: Worldwide
  * COMPANY HEADQUARTERS LOCATION: Denmark

3.4 RESEARCHER

Davide Quarta, Mario Polino, Marcello Pogliani, and Stefano Zanero from
Politecnico di Milano as well as Federico Maggi with Trend Micro Inc.?s
Forward-Looking Threat Research Team reported these vulnerabilities to NCCIC.
CVE-2018-10635 was first disclosed by Cesar Cerrudo and Lucas Apa in their
presentation Hacking Robots Before Skynet.

4. MITIGATIONS

Universal Robots recommends the follow remedial actions:

  * Only allow trusted users physical access to the robot control box and teach
    pendant.
  * Do not connect the robot to a network unless it is required by the
    application.
  * Do not connect the robot directly to the internet. Use a secure network
    with proper firewall configuration (Ports 30001/TCP to 30003/TCP must be
    restricted).
  * Make the private subnet where the robot network interface is exposed as
    small as possible.

NCCIC recommends users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of
exploitation of this vulnerability. Specifically, users should:

  * Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems,
    and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
  * Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and
    isolate them from the business network.
  * When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private
    Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should
    be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN
    is only as secure as the connected devices.

NCCIC reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk
assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.

NCCIC also provides a section for control systems security recommended
practices on the ICS-CERT web page. Several recommended practices are available
for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems
Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available
on the ICS-CERT website in the Technical Information Paper,
ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation
Strategies.

Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their
established internal procedures and report their findings to NCCIC for tracking
and correlation against other incidents.

NCCIC also recommends that users take the following measures to protect
themselves from social engineering attacks:

  * Do not click web links or open unsolicited attachments in email messages.
  * Refer to Recognizing and Avoiding Email Scams for more information on
    avoiding email scams.
  * Refer to Avoiding Social Engineering and Phishing Attacks for more
    information on social engineering attacks.

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